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dco panel

The DCO panel allows you to edit the current setings for whatever DCO is currently selected. Only one DCO is selected at any given time so this panel is context sensitive.

3 - DCO Panel




You can use either the sel button on the patch panel or the dco select menu on this panel to select the current DCO to edit. The upper left corner of the dco panel displays the currently edited DCO by name; in this example DCO B1 is being edited. it is a good idea to observe this value to know specifically which DCO you are editing as it may change as you make other adjustments in the patch panel.




waveform control


The waveform select menu allows you to select among the various waveforms that this DCO will output. Available waveform types are:

sine Sinusoidal wave. A sine wave smoothly varies the output at a single frequency according to f = A * sin ( ωt ). A sine wave has no harmonics and generates a pure tone at the fundamental frequency.
triangle Triangle wave. A triangle wave repeatedly varies the output in both increasing and decreasing linear directions. A triangle wave has odd harmonics that occur with amplitudes related 1 / n2 where n is the octave above the fundamental frequency.
sawtooth Sawtooth wave. A sawtooth wave instantly repeatedly changes output from minimum to maximum and the linearly decreases down to minimum again. A sawtooth wave has all harmonics with amplitudes related to 1 / n where n is the octave above the fundamental frequency.
ramp Ramp wave. A ramp wave repeatedly changes output from minimum to maximum and then instantly changes output back to minimum again. A ramp wave is a time inverted version of the sawtooth wave and has the same harmonic content, but has unique modulation properties.
pulse Pulse wave. A pulse wave repeatedly changes from mnimum to maximum and back to minumum instantly. The ratio between the time spent at maximum and the time spent at minimum is called the duty cycle. A duty cycle of 0 is a square wave; negative values increase the minimum ratio, while positive values increase the maximum ratio. A square pulse wave has has odd harmonics that occur with amplitudes reated to 1/n where n is the ocative above the fundamental frequency. As the duty cycle changes, the weighting of the harmonics changes.
noise Noise wave. A noise wave is an output variation created repeatedly from output values chosen randomly between minimum and maximum. The time interval between output variation is inversely related to the selected frequency. A noise wave has varying degrees of harmonic content and changes continously, which at high frequencies resembles nearly even frequency distribution.
level Level wave. A level wave is a constant output value that has no variation the amplitude determines the value. A level wave is only useful for modulation where a fixed target modulation value is needed.

The note select menu allows you to set the frequency of the DCO using a built-in note-to-frequency conversion table tempered to concert A 440.0 Hz (A4). The note range spans 8 octaves ranging in frequency from 16.352 Hz (C0) to 4,242,426 Hz (B7). When a note selection is made the ferquency is displayed in the DCO frequency display, and will become unselected when the frequency is changed manually.


The bias button enables (when lit) or disables (when unlit) an 1/2 range positive output offset on the DCO. When bias is disabled, the output waveforms produce amplitudes that are symmetrical ( both positive and negative ). When bias is enabled, the additional offset produces the amplitudes that are only positive. This will not be heard audibly, but is useful when using modulation to support more variation. Clicking the bias button will toggle its current state.


The ovf button enables (when lit) or disables (when unlit) numerical overflow compensation on wavetable processing. The DCOs generate waveform output using a 24 bit lookup table, stepping through the table based on frequency. When the overflow function is off, the wavetable position uses modulo calculations to ensure an acoustically correct position when the cycle repeats. When the overflow funtion is on, the wavetable position resets when cycling, which although not acoustically accurrate can result in a cleaner sound for non-sinusooidal waves.


The amp control adjusts the gain appliled to the DCO waveform output. A value of +/- 1.0 will result in a waveform that spans the maximum output range. A negative value for gain will produce the same volume, but will invert the output phase.


The dc control adjusts the duty cycle when a pulse wave is selected; it has no function on other waveform types. When using a pulse wave, a positive value will increase the ratio of on-to-off time in the output, whereasea negative value will increase the ratio of off-to-on time in the output. A value of 0.0 will result in a square wave output.


The freq control adjust the output frequency of the DCO in Hz. The left slider (course) sets the output frequency integer component, which can range from 0 to 8 kHz. The right slider (fine) sets the output frequency fractional component, which can range from 0.00 to 0.99. Frequency ranges below approximately 20 Hz will not be audible but can be useful for LFO (low frequency oscillator) modulation.


The dist control adjusts the amount of frequency distortion that is added to the current waveform output. Frequency distortion introduces a variation in the wavetable stepping algorithm, which adds variable harmonics to the output to produce a type of whistling timbre.




envelope control


The trig button (when pressed) triggers the ADSR amplitude envelope generator on the output waveform. The ADSR envelope generator modifies the output volume of the waveform over time using a four stage system:


The A(ttack) stage ramps the amplitude from zero to a preset value ( A amplitude ) over a preset time ( A duration )

The D(decay) stage ramps the amplitude from the attack stage to a preset value ( D amplitude ) over a preset time ( D duration ).

The output amplitude S(ustains) the decay stage amplitude until the release funtion (button) is activate.

The R(release) stage ramps the amplitude from the sustain stage to a preset value ( R amplitude ) over a prest time ( R duration ).


When the trigger button is pressed, it illuminates both itself and the rls button, indicating that the ADSR envelope is running. Note that you can retrigger the waveform at any time, and the ADSR will stage in the sustain stage until the rls button is pressed.


The rls button (when pressed) releases ADSR amplitude envelope generator on the output waveform. When release is first applied, the ADSR will begin executing the release stage. When the release stage completes the ADSR is disabled, unless it is retriggered again using the trig button.


The A|D|R duration menus set the tming for the ADSR envelope generator. The stage timings are not cotinuously controllable, but have preset values corresponding to the menu items. The sustain timing cannot be set as it is contingent on the user.


The A|D|R amplitude sliders set the amplitude targets for the ADSR envelope generator stages. The amplitudes range from 0.0 (muted) to 1.0 (full gain) on each stage. The release value is typically set to 0.0 to allow the release to complete, but can be set to other values based on special requirements.


The AT | AR buttons enable (when lit) or disable (when unlit) the built-in amplitude targeting and amplitude ramping functions on the DCO. Note that ampltide targeting only functions if both itself and amplitude ramping are enabled. When amplitude targeting is enabled, the amplitude will ramp from its current value to a preset value over a preset time. Both the target and the ramp rate can be continuously adjusted while targeting is active. When Amplitude ramping is enabled, the amplitude repeatedly ramps up and down from zero to maximum value at a preset rate. You can toggle the AT | AR states by clicking on the buttons.


The FT | FR buttons enable (when lit) or disable (when unlit) the built-in frequency targeting and frequency ramping functions on the DCO. Note that frequency target only functions if both itself and frequency ramping are enabled. When frequency targeting is enabled, the frequency will ramp from its current value to a preset value over a preset time. Both the target and ramp rate can be continuously adjusted while targeting is active. When frequency ramping is enabled, the frequency repeatedly ramps up and down from zero to maximum frequency at a preset rate. You can toggle the FT | FR states by clicking on the buttons.




track / ramp control


The atgt slider sets the target amplitude when amplitude targeting is enabled. The amplitude target will be the final output amplitude of the DCO when targeting is enabled and the targeting rate is non-zero.


The arate slider sets the relative transition rate for both amplitude targeting and amplitude ramping. In most cases the rate is set low to observe the ramping effect over an observable time, but can be set to higher values to support modulation capabilities.


The ftgt slider sets the target frequency when frequency targeting is enabled. The frequency target will be the final frequency of the DCO when targeting is enable and targeting rate is non-zero.


The frate slider sets the relative transition rate for both frequency targeting and frequency ramping. In most cases the rate is set low to observe the ramping effect over an observable time, but can be set to hight values to support modulation capabilities.